Change to Our Chair in Naval Heritage

Due to several circumstances the Chair in Naval Heritage is being transformed into a Post Doc Fellowship. There has been much conversation between Class Leadership and the USNA History Department. The new situation has been agreed by all parties and a new Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) has been executed. Here is that MOU.

MOU 1957Hist Dept

Post Doc for 2023-2024

Dr. Ross Phillips, late of U.S. Marine Corps History Division Archives, has been appointed to our Post Doc position in what is now the Class of 1957 Teaching & Research Postdoctoral Fellow in Naval History. He will serve for the academic year 2023-2024. See his CV below.

Ross Phillips
15512 Horseshoe Lane
Woodbridge, VA 22191
Cell: 706-498-8816
Email: [email protected]

● Bachelor of Arts in History, Spring 2017, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, GPA:
3.93, Summa Cum Laude
● Master of Arts in History, Spring 2019, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
● Certificate in Advanced International Affairs, George H.W. Bush School of Government
and Public Service, Spring 2020, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas

Current: PhD Candidate, Texas A&M University, Advisors: Dr. Brian Linn and Dr. Terry
Anderson, Area of Study: 20 th Century U.S. Military History, Marine Corps Operations in the
Vietnam War, Dissertation: “Cracking the Corps: Marine Corps Withdrawal and Vietnamization,


Lt. Col. Lily H. Gridley Doctoral Fellow, U.S. Marine Corps History Division Archives,
July 2020-Present

● Conducted reference interviews to determine researcher needs, identify relevant
collections, formulated research strategies and plans, and answered their reference
● Ensured the Marine Corps Lineage and Honors Program met required standards which
consisted of researching Marine Corps units, their deployments, honors, and heraldry to
determine their origins and whether they receive campaign credits and awards based on
this research.
● Furnished research support and applied knowledge of personal papers, studies and
reports, command chronologies, and other Marine Corps collections to prepare for
inquiries from the public, veterans, Marine Corps officers and enlisted personnel, Marine
Corps History Division staff, Headquarters Marine Corps, and engaged in online
interactions to answer inquiries regarding Marine Corps history.
● Replied orally and in writing to provide thoroughly researched and professional
responses to external and internal historical inquiries.
● Served as a duty expert on many aspects of Marine Corps history including its
relationship to and influence on United States political, military, social, and cultural
history, specifically Marine Corps involvement in the Vietnam War.
● Used military history knowledge and current archival principles, methods, and techniques
to develop long term solutions for maintenance of historical documents and records and
appropriately organized, categorized, arranged, and described archival records to ensure
materials could be found and utilized efficiently by researchers.
● Conducted historical research and analysis using methods-based on knowledge of
historical sources to complete my dissertation project on the Marine Corps Withdrawal
from Vietnam.
● Conducted oral history interviews with retired general officers and veterans in order to
document their service, aided in organization and maintenance of oral history recordings.

Intern, Marine Corps History Division, Histories Unit, Quantico, Virginia, May-August
2018 and May-July 2019

● Researched personnel records, memoirs, and books on the battle for Iwo Jima and
authored the biographical appendix for the Marine Corps official history titled,
"Investigating Iwo: The Flag Raisings in Myth, Memory, & Espirit de Corps," edited by
Breanne Robertson.
● Conducted historical research at the National Archives I at Washington D.C. in RG 127,
Records of the United States Marine Corps and at the U.S. Army Heritage and Education
Center at Carlisle, Pennsylvania using methods-based on knowledge of historical sources
in order to assist in production of accurate narratives, articles, and certificates in support
of the organization's mission.
● Oversaw the preparation of historical product such as the preliminary working outline for
the history publication project on the U.S. Marines in the Civil War Official History.

Teaching Assistant, August 2017-May 2020, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
● Teaching Assistant for History 105: History of the United States to 1877, History 232:
History of American Seapower, History 106: History of the United States since 1877,
History 230: American Military History, August 2017-May 2020

Research Assistant for Dr. Stephen Berry, May-August 2017, University of Georgia,
Athens, Georgia

● Created a research database in Microsoft Excel with several different fields to aid the
creation of an online archive for the study of death and dying in the American South and
organized data and reviewed documents to analyze and interpret their authenticity and
relative significance.
● Evaluated collected source materials of coroner’s reports from 19th Century South
Carolina to determine their value into the collective body of available research
documentation in for creation of an online database.

Intern, Textual Reference Division: Army Records, June-July 2016, The National Archives
at College Park, Maryland

● Furnished reference and research support to researchers in the Research Consultation
Room including filling out pull slips and request forms along with utilizing NARA HMS
for the search catalog to aid researchers to find relevant records.


● Ross E. Phillips with Annette Amerman, “Appendix F: Biographical Sketches of Key
Personnel” in Investigating Iwo: The Flag Raisings in Myth, Memory, & Espirit de
Corps, edited by Breanne Robertson (Quantico, VA: Marine Corps History Division,
2019), 322-330.


● Lt. Col. Lily H. Gridley Doctoral Fellowship, Marine Corps Heritage Foundation and
U.S. Marine Corps History Division, 2020
● 2022 John F. Guilmartin Travel Grant, United States Commission on Military History


● Texas A&M University, Instructor: Professor Charles Brooks, History 105: History of the
United States to 1877, Lecture Entitled: “The American Civil War,” Fall 2018.
● Texas A&M University, Instructor: Professor Charles Brooks, History 105: History of the
United States to 1877, Lecture Entitled: “Slavery and the Southern Economy,” Spring
● Texas A&M University, Instructor: Professor Brian Linn, History 230: American Military
History, Lecture Title: “The Marine Corps Experience in Vietnam,” Digital, Spring 2020.


● Texas Tech University, 1969 Vietnamization and the Year of Transition in the Vietnam
War, April 26, 2019, Paper entitled: “Operation Dewey Canyon: Search-and-Destroy in
the Age of Abrams.”
● United States Naval Academy, McMullen Naval History Symposium, September 20,
2019, Paper entitled: “Operation Dewey Canyon: High-Water Mark of the Marine Corps
in Vietnam.”
● Society of Military History 2020 Annual Meeting, April 30-May 3, 2020, Paper entitled:
“Winning the People: Personal Response, the Marine Corps, and Vietnam.” (Cancelled
due to COVID-19)
● Society of Military History 2021 Annual Meeting, May 20-May 23, 2021, Paper entitled:
“Winning the People: Personal Response, the Marine Corps, and Vietnam,” Virtual.
● Society of Military History 2022 Annual Meeting, Fort Worth, Texas, April 28-May 1,
2022, Paper entitled: “The ‘High Mobility’ Concept: General Raymond G. Davis and
Marine Corps Use of Helicopters in the Vietnam War.”
● 2022 International Commission of Military History, Wroclaw, Poland, 1 September 2022,
United States Commission on Military History Representative, Paper entitled: “Fighting
to Leave: The Marine Corps’s Defense of South Vietnam, 1969-1971.”

Doctor Phillip’s Syllabus for Fall of 2023

HH-104: American Naval History
United States Naval Academy
Fall 2023

“Without officers, what can be expected of a navy?
The ships cannot maneuver themselves.”
Captain Thomas Truxton to Secretary of War James McHenry (1797)

“If there are no wars in the present in which the professional soldier can learn his trade, he is almost compelled to study the wars of the past. For after all allowances have been made for historical differences, wars still resemble each other more than they resemble any other human activity.”
Sir Michael Howard, “The Use and Abuse of Military History” (1961)

A. Course Description, Theme, and Objectives

This course provides a foundational historical study and narrative of American Naval History from 1775 to the present. This class will examine the antecedents, origins, and development of the United States Navy and Marine Corps within the context of the overall history of the United States and its rise from colony to global hegemon. This course focuses on the peacetime and wartime roles of the U.S. Navy, as well as the historical figures, combat operations, technologies, and social changes that have shaped the history and policy of the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Marine Corps. This class will provide an introductory understanding of concepts inherent to the profession of arms (e.g., doctrine, strategy, operational art, tactics, technology, civil-military relations, combat leadership) as well as written communication, with emphasis on analysis (e.g., development of an argument, use of evidence, assessment of conflicting claims). It will also serve as your introduction to the study of history, and the different skill sets of communication, research, and analysis that it entails.

This class is not solely an institutional history of the U.S. Navy, however. This being a “naval history” of the United States means that we will often discuss historical forces outside and beyond the purview of the Navy that had consequences for the country’s maritime interests. Students will learn here that the United States’ geographical location and economic concerns had a significant effect on the country’s historical trajectory into the realm of sea power. American armed forces do not, and never have, operated in a protective bubble free from the influences and demands of the society they serve. The more traditional subjects of other survey courses on American history (i.e. national and sectional politics, economics, society, and culture) will be important aspects of this class because these forces helped shape American naval thought, strategy, and technological development throughout its history in critical ways.

The goals of this class are to provide foundational knowledge of U.S. Naval History, provide understanding of historical cause and effect in addition to an understanding of the significance of historical events, actors, and key terms and concept. This course also strives to enhance your writing, research skills, and oral communication and presentation skills.

B. Course Framework

HH 104 will introduce you to five cardinal themes that frame U.S. naval history: global & national context, naval policy, strategy, technology, and professional culture.
With “asking questions of the past” in mind, the five themes will help us to apply historical knowledge, understanding, and skills in ways that address several important questions:
a. Why does the United States maintain a navy? What purposes does the navy serve? What benefits does the nation derive from its navy? What costs does it incur?
b. How does the navy change over time? Why does it change? How do political, strategic, economic, social/cultural, and technological trends shape the navy?
c. How does the navy accomplish national goals? How does it interact with other instruments of national power (diplomatic, information/ideas, military, economic) to achieve these goals?
d. How do individuals shape–and how are they shaped by–naval experiences? How can we understand the uncertain, complex, and messy worlds they faced? How does our situation as naval professionals today reflect the experiences and choices (agency) of our predecessors?
e. How does history explain the current naval predominance of the United States?
Taken together, these key questions will guide our historical studies throughout the semester.
To meet these goals, we will strive to achieve eight major course objectives, three relating to Course and five relating to Core objectives:
C. Course Objectives
1. To understand why and how the United States developed a Navy and the Navy’s role in the growth of the United States as a global power.
2. To understand how the United States developed national policy and how the Instruments of National Power were used to execute that policy. By extension, to understand and analyze how the Navy and Marine Corps act as instruments of national policy.
3. To provide an understanding of how America fights Wars and what the US Navy’s role is we will utilize the Levels of War and the Principles of War as a framework for analysis.

D. Core Objectives

At the conclusion of HH104, the student will be able to...

1. Demonstrate Historical competence. Identify factors that shape change over time; to
explain historical narratives; and to analyze historical evidence as well as apply it to
historical questions (verbatim from the common History Core Student Learning Outcome
A– common to all three core courses).
2. Demonstrate Communications competence. Express their ideas in writing clearly,
precisely, and in an organized fashion
3. Describe, explain, and apply to historical examples basic concepts inherent to the
profession of arms, such tactics, doctrine, strategy, technology, logistics, and civil-
military relations.
4. Summarize and explain factors contributing to America’s growth to world power status.
5. Analyze and explain the causes, conduct, and consequences of major wars the United
States Navy has fought.

E. Course Materials

1. Bradford, James C., America, Sea Power, and the World. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016.
2. Symonds, Craig L. The U.S. Navy: A Concise History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
3. Symonds, Craig L. Decision at Sea. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
4. Assorted Readings available via Google Classroom.

F. Class Expectations

There are a number of graded items in this class; however, all assignments must be turned in in order to pass the class. Failure to turn in any single assignment will result in a failure for the class. For each paper, you will receive a rubric or grading matrix, which explains the grading philosophy and weighting. Follow the rubric.

G. Grading

Scale: A 93 –100; A- 90–92; B+ 87 –89; B 83–86; B- 80–82; C+ 77–79; C 73–76; C- 70–72; D+ 67–69; D 60–66; F below 60. No A+ or D- will be awarded. Final grades are at the discretion of the instructor.
Battle Briefs 20%
Exam 1 10%
Exam 2 15%
Exam 3 20%
Research Paper 20%
Research Paper Proposal 5%
Research Topic Presentation 5%
Class Participation 5%
Total 100%

H. Battle Briefs

There will be a total of three battle briefs due throughout the semester based on chapters from Symonds’s Decision at Sea. You will choose to write on three battles out of the five covered in Symonds. The lowest grade of the three being dropped. These papers are designed to provide you with the opportunity to examine historical events and actors in a highly structured format that also teaches you to go beyond memorizing the dates and outcomes of battles. These battle briefs require you to argue the significance of a particular battle, understand its chronology, how it connected to the broader strategic vision within the historical context of the war, and the effects of the leaders on the events of the action.

I do not have a word count requirement, but it is important to keep in mind that this cannot be effectively addressed in one or two sentences. Aim for around 3-4 pages per response. Be clear, be concise, and persuade me that you know the readings. You are only responsible for bringing information provided in the Symonds chapter, but you are welcome to bring in source material from lecture and outside sources to enhance your analysis. Proper grammar and spelling are expected. I will provide a rubric and we will discuss a practice brief in class.

I. Research Paper

Students will write a 6-8 page paper on a topic of their choosing that explores an important aspect of U.S. naval history. Each student must make an appointment to meet with me to discuss and get approval on their proposed topic by 1 October. Students will then turn in their proposal and outline draft by 13 October. Students should turn in their finished paper on November 20 by 11:59 pm. Students who wish to turn in a revised paper (based on my comments and feedback) for a higher grade may do so at the final exam. I will distribute handouts that provide greater detail on each step of this process as the semester goes on via Google Classroom and in class.

Resources for Research Paper (and in general): Midshipman should take advantage of the Academy’s myriad proactive academic support programs from the Center for Academic Excellence (CAE, or AcCenter, located on the second deck of the Levy Center in Mitscher Hall) ( The Writing Center in Nimitz Library offers walk-in and appointment assistance for all writing projects-use it! Tutoring, supplemental instruction, exam and topic review sessions, and learning skills including time management, effective reading, exam preparation, (avoiding) procrastination, and (overcoming) test anxiety are all services the AcCenter provides. The Midshipmen Group Study Program (MGSP) also provides peer tutoring for HH104.

“The USNA Writing Center is committed to supporting the writing needs of all midshipmen, with all writing projects, at all stages of the writing process. If at any point in the semester you are struggling to brainstorm, draft, revise, or properly reference sources in a writing assignment, make an appointment in Starfish or walk-in for a one-on-one writing consultation. The Writing Center is located on the first deck of Nimitz Library”

Writing Center Hours of Operation:
Daytime Hours: Monday-Friday, 0755-1600 (closed 1200-1245)
Evening Hours: Sunday-Thursday, 2000-2200
• 24-Hour Online Paper Review: Friday & Saturday appointments available in Starfish; submit your essay and receive feedback from a professional tutor within 24 hours.
• One-on-One Consultations for Public Speaking, Presentation Skills, & Interview Preparation: Tuesday & Wednesday, 0755-1600 (closed 1200-1245); by appointment only.

HH104 Library Research Guide:

History Research Librarian: Mr. Michael Macan, [email protected] Do you have questions about historical research at Nimitz Library and beyond? Email Michael for help.

J. Exams

There will be three exams. They will not be comprehensive, meaning they will only cover material discussed since the previous exam. For example, the second exam will only cover material given after the first exam. The exams will consist of two parts: identification (ID’s), and essay. The ID’s will be drawn from lecture and the textbooks and will include important people, events, and ideas. You will pick from a bank of terms, concepts, events, and people. Students need to correctly identify in two to four sentences who or what these ID’s are and why they are important. The essay will address a historical question and it will be the student’s task to write an essay in response that demonstrates mastery of the material germane to the question. The better students can make an argument backed up by important evidence/key terms from the textbook and lecture, the better grade they will receive. Exams will be closed book with no notes. No headphones, no cellphones, no laptops or any other electronic devices allowed during the exam.

K. Classroom Policies
Attendance/Tardiness: The classroom is your appointed place of duty. As a member of the U.S. military, you are expected to be present at the appointed time and in the correct uniform. Unexcused absence is not an option. If you know you are going to be unable to attend class due to an excused absence, please let me know as far in advance as possible, for example if you have a sports commitment or mandatory event.

Food/Beverages: Food is not allowed in the classroom, but beverages are permitted.

Sleeping: Please do not sleep in my class. If you cannot stay awake, please stand up and move to the back of the classroom (expect this technique in the Operating Forces). If you see your neighbor sleeping, gently nudge them to wake them up.

Head Calls: Please use the head before class.

Electronics: Run ‘em silent and run ‘em deep. Cell phones will remain out of sight during class. If you are expecting an urgent phone call that you cannot miss (duty responsibilities, medical/personal emergencies, etc.), please speak with me before class. Laptops will be prohibited during class as they often encourage inattention and distract other students. If you have a tablet, you are welcome to use it for notetaking if you are writing notes on it. I reserve the right to amend this policy throughout the semester as necessary.

Dignity and Respect: The Naval Academy’s focus on learning is to foster an educational environment that supports and encourages Midshipman learning and critical thinking. My classroom will follow a model of mutual respect between myself and the Midshipmen and between Midshipmen. Failure to respect and engage professionally with the instructor and your fellow classmates will result in your dismissal from the class.

L. Course Policies

Open Door Policy: My door is always open; I am here to assist you both academically and professionally. If you need assistance with coursework or would like to discuss any matter whatsoever, please feel free to speak with me. Stopping by my office is perfectly acceptable but arranging an appointment (via email or calendar notification) is far more efficient. Setting an appointment in advance ensures that you will not waste time tracking me down or standing outside of my office.

Communication: I will use Google Classroom announcements and e-mail as my first options to disseminate information to the class. Check our Google Classroom page frequently. I will try to keep deviations from the syllabus to a minimum, but changes in reading assignments and class locations will occur periodically. I will use email to contact you individually. E-mail is a reliable means for you to contact me as well. I check my email frequently. Nights and weekends I do not check my email regularly, however. If you contact me at night and on weekends, I will try to respond within 24 hours, but a reply will not be immediate. However, never hesitate to contact me if you need assistance.

Extra Instruction (EI): You are welcome to stop by my office whenever the door is open; however, I often have other requirements that preclude EI. The best approach is to schedule EI by appointment via an e-mail or in person at the end of class. This will avoid wasted time and ensure that I am available and prepared for our meeting. To maximize our time, come prepared with specific topics you want to discuss.

Assignments: All assignments must be turned in to pass this course. If there is an issue let me know AT LEAST the day BEFORE the assignment is due. Late assignments will be penalized 20 percentage points the first day late and 10 percentage points per day thereafter. [100% becomes 80% with 10% subtracted each day]

Rough Drafts: I am willing to review drafts of assignments prior to you submitting them for a grade. I will accept rough drafts of all written assignments at least one week (seven calendar days) prior to the due date. That will ensure that I have enough time to read it, provide meaningful feedback, and that you have enough time to incorporate my feedback into your paper.

Citation: As with most history programs, we will use Chicago style citation in all of our formal writing. If you need any instruction on Chicago style citation you can find an excellent guide online at:

Academic Integrity and Plagiarism: Any time you use either the wording or an idea that appears in one of your sources, including internet sources, you must include a footnote to indicate the source of the quotation. If you are in any doubt, consult the USNA Statement on Plagiarism, available here < > and included at the end of this syllabus. If I determine that any portion of your written assignment is not your own original work, you will fail that assignment without a rewrite opportunity. Since plagiarism is an honor violation, you will also be referred to an honor board for disciplinary action. Beyond the immediate consequences, your future profession demands uncompromising honor. In short, complete your own work and cite your sources.

Statement on Generative AI: Use of generative Artificial Intelligence (AI) to complete any part of assignments or exams in this course is prohibited. Use of AI without explicit written authorization from your professor in this course is a violation of the Naval Academy’s Honor Concept. Midshipmen are responsible for identifying if any programs they use when completing an assignment are considered generative AI. If in doubt, ask your professor.

M. Course Schedule
[The instructor reserves the right to alter the schedule and readings]:
*All reading assignments must be completed by the class date for which they are listed*

17 August (TH): Intro, Syllabus Review, Why Study History?

18 August (F): Naval History Terms, Sea Power, and the Age of Sail (Bradford, chapter 1)

21 August (M): American Revolution: Birth of the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps (Bradford, Chapter 2)

23 August (W): American Revolution: Frigates and Privateers (Decision at Sea, Prologue)

25 August (F): Beat Notre Dame! (NO CLASS)

28 August (M): American Revolution to Early Republic (Bradford, chapter 3)

30 August (W): Early Republic: Naval Act of 1794, Quasi War, Jeffersonian Naval Policy

1 September (F): Jeffersonian Naval Policy and Barbary Wars

4 September (M): Labor Day (NO CLASS)

6 September (W): War of 1812: Naval Causes (Bradford, chapter 4)

8 September (F): War of 1812 on the Oceans

11 September (M): War of 1812 on the Lakes (Symonds, Part One, pp. 21-79)

13 September (W): U.S. Naval Policy, 1815-1860: Diplomacy and Exploration (Bradford, chapter 5) *Battle Brief #1 Due

15 September (F): U.S. Naval Policy, 1815-1860: Technology and Sailors (Bradford, chapter 6)

18 September (M): Exam 1 (0955-1045)

20 September (W): U.S. Navy in Mexican-American War, 1846-1848

22 September (F): *CLASS LOCATION TO BE ANNOUNCED* DUE TOMCMULLEN SYMPOSIUM; American Civil War: Origins and Blockade (Bradford, chapter 7)

25 September (M): American Civil War: Technology and Commerce Raiding
Symonds, Part Two, pp. 81-137

27 September (W): American Civil War: Combined Operations (Bradford, chapter 8)

29 September (F): The New Navy, 1865-1895 (Bradford, chapter 9)

2 October (M): Alfred Thayer Mahan, Sea Power, and U.S. Naval Thought (Battle Brief #2 Due)

4 October (W): War of 1898 (Bradford, chapter 10) Symonds, Part Three, pp. 138-195

6 October (F): U.S. Marine Corps: Search for a Mission

9 October (M): Columbus Day (NO CLASS)

10 October (T): Teddy Roosevelt’s Navy and U.S. Imperialism (Bradford, chapter 11)

11 October (W): World War I: Naval Arms Race and Causes (Bradford, chapter 12) Battle Brief #3 Due

13 October (F): World War I: Surface Fleets, Convoying, and Aviation [Research Paper Proposal and Outline Due]

16 October (M): Interwar U.S. Naval Policy, 1919-1940 (Bradford, chapter 13)

18 October (W): Exam 2 (12:40-1:30 p.m.)

20 October (F): World War II: Origins and Pacific (Bradford, chapter 15) Symonds, Part Four, pp. 196-262

23 October (M): World War II: Amphibious War in Pacific (Bradford, chapter 16)

25 October (W): World War II: Pacific, 1944 (Bradford, chapter 17)

27 October (F): Tutorial: Writing History Essays (for book research essay) (Battle Brief #4 Due)

30 October (M): World War II: Battle of the Atlantic (Bradford, chapter 14)

1 November (W): World War II: Mediterranean and Europe

3 November (F): World War II: Victory and Conclusions

6 November (M): Reading Day (NO CLASS)

8 November (W): Cold War and Defense Unification (Bradford, chapter 18)

10 November (F): Korean War

13 November (M): Cold War and U.S. Navy Nuclear Policy (Bradford, chapter 19)

15 November (W): Vietnam War: Origins and Naval Air War (Bradford chapter 20)

17 November (F): Vietnam War: Riverine Operations and U.S. Marines (Bradford, chapter 20)

20 November (M): U.S. Navy Reform, 1970s-1990s (Bradford, chapter 21; Symonds, Part Five, pp. 263-320) *Research Paper Due by 11:59 pm*

22 November (W): U.S. Navy: Future Vision, Past Legacies (Bradford, chapter 22)

24 November (F): Thanksgiving (NO CLASS)

27 November (M): Research Paper Presentations

29 November (W): Research Paper Presentations (Battle Brief #5 Due)

1 December (F): Research Paper Presentations

8 December (F): Reading Day (NO CLASS)

11 December (M): Reading Day (NO CLASS)

12-19 December: Final Exams (Exam 3)



Plagiarism is the use of the words, information, insights, or ideas of another without crediting that person through proper citation. Unintentional plagiarism, or sloppy scholarship, is academically unacceptable; intentional plagiarism is dishonorable. You can avoid plagiarism by fully and openly crediting all sources used.


1. Give credit where credit is due. Inevitably, you will use other people's discoveries and concepts. Build on them creatively. But do not compromise your honor by failing to acknowledge clearly where your work ends and that of someone else begins.

2. Provide proper citation for everything taken from others. Such material includes: interpretations; ideas; wording; insights; factual discoveries; interviews and other personal communications; outlines, argument structures or organizing strategies; charts; tables; and appendices. Citations must guide the reader clearly and explicitly to the sources used, whether published, unpublished, or electronic. Cite a source each time you borrow from it. A single citation, concluding or followed by extended borrowing, is inadequate and misleading. Indicate all use of another's words, even if they constitute only part of a sentence, with quotation marks and specific citation. Citations may be footnotes, endnotes, or parenthetical references.

3. Recognize the work of others even if you are not borrowing their words. Theories, interpretations, assessments, and judgments are all intellectual contributions made by others and must be attributed to them.

4. Paraphrase properly. Paraphrasing is a vehicle for conveying or explaining a source's ideas and requires a citation to the original source. A paraphrase captures the source's meaning and tone in your own words and sentence structure. In a paraphrase, the words are yours, but the ideas are not. A paraphrase should not be used to create the impression of originality.

5. Cite sources in all work submitted for credit. Your instructor may also require you to identify the contributions of others in drafts you submit only for review. Ask your instructor for his or her citation requirements and any discipline-specific attribution practices.

6. Be cautious when using web-based sources, including Internet sites and electronic journals. There is a common misperception that information found on the Internet does not need to be cited. Web-based information, even if anonymous, must be appropriately cited. Do not cut and paste or otherwise take material from websites without proper citation.

7. Provide a citation when in doubt. Always err on the side of caution.

(adopted 29 November 2017)

We learn the human past in order to act with greater wisdom, prudence, and success in the present and future, an aim that is essential for military officers and civilian leaders alike. Studying history hones analytical and communication skills essential to succeed in most careers and professions. The USNA History Department offers courses with the rigor necessary to achieve these outcomes. Reaching this level of mastery involves joint responsibility.

It is the responsibility of students to master the knowledge and the skills. History helps us to understand how the world has changed over time to become the world we live in today. The world cannot be accurately understood without sound knowledge of history. History conveys the diversity of the human experience across space and time. Best practice in history education demands that students learn core competencies in historical methods (i.e. sifting, organizing, questioning, interpreting, and synthesizing complex written material and other sources of evidence) and historical writing (i.e. developing and answering open-ended questions about the past that are supported by relevant evidence and appropriately cited). In practice, students in our history courses will be asked to read 100 or more pages per week and write between 15 and 20 pages per semester. Some students view these standards as demanding; we view them as the minimum necessary to ensure that students master the history and historical skills required to be successful military and civilian leaders.

For their part, history faculty as professional educators commit to being current in our fields, for bringing the best historical knowledge and the best pedagogical practices to our courses. This means an inclination to regularly experiment, an openness to feedback, and a commitment to continuous learning and improvement. In short, we promise to bring our best to the classroom, and we expect our students to do the same. As faculty, we encourage and support one another to this end.